History of the Crusades

Welcome to History of the Crusades hompage! Below you will find every episode of History of the Crusades podcast. You can also find this series on itunes.

Enjoy! 

Welcome to History of the Crusades homepage, supporting the History of the Crusades podcast.  


Episodes of History of the Crusades podcast can be listened to below.  Just click on the link and you'll be taken to the host website where you can listen to the episode.  You can also find this series on itunes.  If you would like to make a comment, please do so by clicking on the links below or post a comment directly on itunes.

I'm aiming to post an episode every week which will take you through the First, Second, Third and Fourth Crusades and other interesting events and personalities such as the children's crusade, the peasant's crusade, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Richard the Lionheart, Saladin - just to name a few.

I'll be adding maps and other supporting documents to the website as we go.

Enjoy!


Sharyn Eastaugh

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Introduction            

This is a very short introduction to the podcast series.

         

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Episode 1 

Latin Christendom in 1090

This episode discusses the situation in western Europe just prior to the First Crusade.  It's a bit short - I'll try to do better next time.

Extra reading:  

  • The letters of Abelard and Heloise
  • Historia Calamutitatum by Peter Abelard
  • Norman Centuries podcast by Lars Brownworth (available from itunes)                                 

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Episode 2

The Middle East and the Byzantine Empire prior to the First Crusade

The title of this episode is pretty self-explanatory.

Extra reading:

  • Jerusalem by Simon Sebag Montefiore
  • The History of Christianity by Diarmaid McCulloch
  • Islam A Short History by Karen Armstrong
  • The Byzantium Trilogy by John Julius Norwich



Map 1 shows the expansion of the Islamic states. Click HERE for the bigger image




Map 2 shows the main religions of Europe and the Middle East at the time of the First Crusade.  The purple section indicates Catholic Latin Christendom, the pink is Orthodox Christianity, the pale green is Sunni Islam and the brighter green Shia Islam.  And yes - the map is in French.  Sorry about that. Click HERE for the bigger image.

The Byzantine Empire 1000 - 1100

Click HERE for the bigger image





Source for maps : Wikipedia


Click HERE to do a 360 degree tour of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem

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Episode 3 

The Speech that launched the Crusades

Discusses Pope Urban II and his speech at Clermont which started the crusading movement.


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Episode 4

The Peasants' Crusade

Another self-explanatory title


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Episode 5

The First Crusade I

Planning, preparations, pogroms and principal players.


Extra reading:

  • The First Crusade by Steven Runciman
  • The First Crusade by Thomas Asbridge
  • The Alexiad by Anna Comnena
  • Crusader: By Horse to Jerusalem by Tim Severin



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Episode 6

The First Crusade II

Travel with the armies of the First Crusade from Latin Christendom to Constantinople.

This map shows the routes of the main armies across Europe.  It's in French, but you should be able to figure it out.  To see it in its original, larger format - click HERE



Extra listening:

  • Episode 10 of Robin Pierson's historical podcast "The History of Byzantium" entitled "Constantinople"



                                            

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Episode 7

The First Crusade III

The siege of Nicaea.  

There is no further reading for this episode, but you can view Nicaea as it is today, by typing  'Izmit, Turkey' into your Google Earth search box.

Click HERE to view some photographs of ruins of the Nicaean fortifications and gates. 

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Episode 8

The First Crusade IV

The battle near Dorylaeum 


If you would like to see a bigger version of this map (which shows the location of the Battle near Dorylaeum and nearby principalities in 1097) please click HERE

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Episode 9

The First Crusade V

Onward to Antioch!  Follow the army on their long, long journey to Antioch.

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Episode 10

The First Crusade VI

The journey of Tancred of Hauteville and Baldwin of Boulogne.

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Episode 11

The First Crusade VII

The Siege of Antioch.


Here is a drawing of Antioch.  Note the Bridge Gate in the foreground and the walls running up the side of the mountains behind the city.

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Episode 12

The First Crusade VII


The Siege of Antioch continues....

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Episode 13

The First Crusade IX


The Siege of Antioch continues...and concludes.


Extra reading:  

  • Holy Bones Holy Dust: How relics shaped the history of Medieval Europe by Charles Freeman

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Episode 14

The First Crusade X


Delay, discord, disease and indecision.

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Episode 15

The First Crusade XI


The siege of Marrat an-Numan

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Episode 16

The First Crusade XII


Onwards to Jerusalem


Here is map showing the route the Crusade took from Antioch to Jerusalem:


Click HERE to see a bigger version of this map!



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Episode 17

The First Crusade XIII


The Siege of Jerusalem



Above you can see a picture of the clerics leading the crusading army in their barefoot march around the walls of Jerusalem.  Note the catapult machine in the foreground.  To see a bigger version, click HERE.


To the right is a map of Jerusalem at the time of the siege.  For a larger version, click HERE.  If you would like to see a map of the actual siege, I suggest you look at the excellent map in Christopher Tyerman's book God's War page 154.



>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>


I had intended to provide a link to an excellent series of photos depicting a recreation of the siege of Jerusalem by the Tin Soldiers of Antwerp in 2008.  They did a great job, building realistic siege towers and catapult machines.  But unfortunately, the images from the site have now been deleted.  In case they miraculously reappear or in case someone knows one of the Tin Soldiers and can get them to repost the photos, the link is HERE


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Episode 18

After the Conquest 1100-1101


The aftermath of the First Crusade and the tumultuous years 1100 and 1101.


Here's something a little different!  A playlist of songs which were around at the time of the Crusades, or which were composed with the Crusades in mind, or which just remind me of the Crusades.  If you're interested, I imagine you can download most of them from itunes.


SONGS OF THE CRUSADES


1.  City of Jerusalem

          Artist:  Jesper Kyd

          Album:  Assassin's Creed Soundtrack


2.  Burning the Past

          Artist: Harry Gregson-Williams

          Album: Kingdom of Heaven Soundtrack


3.  The Feeling Begins

          Artist:  Peter Gabriel

          Album: Passion


4.  Taksim

          Artist: Jordi Savall

          Album: Istanbul


5.  Call to Prayer (Adhan)

          Artist:  Yusuf Islam (formerly Cat Stevens)

          Album:  Footsteps in the Light


6.  Kyrie 11

          Artist: Benedictine Monks of Santo Domingo de Silos

          Album:  The Mystery of Santo Domingo de Silos


7.  Hymne des Cherubins

          Artist:  The Byzantine Choir of Greece

          Album:  The Glory of Byzantium


8.  Rorate Caeli Desuper

          Artist:  The Monks and Choirboys of Downside Abbey

          Album:  Music from the Time of the Crusades


9.  With this Love

          Artist:  Peter Gabriel

          Album:  Passion


10.  O Rubor Sanguinis

          Artist:  Sequentia

          Album:  900 years Hildegard von Bingen


11.  La tierche estampie real

          Artist:  The Early Music Consort of London

          Album:  Music of the Crusades

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Episode 19

The Crusader States : The Principality of Antioch 


Self-explanatory, really.  A look at the first Crusader State we will be examining - the Principality of Antioch.

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Episode 20


The Crusader States : The County of Edessa and the County of Tripoli


A look at two more Crusader States.

 
Here is a map of the Crusader States.  Click  HERE to see a larger version.

Here is a photo of Mount Pilgrim as it is today.  It's now called Qala'at Sanjil and is stiuated in Tripoli, Lebanon.

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Episode 21

The Crusader States : The Kingdom of Jerusalem


A look at the final Crusader State.


Here is a page from Queen Melisende's prayer book, currently part of the British Library's collection.

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Episode 22

The Knights Templar Part I


The establishment of the Knights Templar.


Extra reading

  • The Templars by Piers Paul Read

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Episode 23

The Knights Templar II

The rise and fall of the Knights Templar


Extra reading

  • The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail by Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln
  • The Messianic Legacy by Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln
  • The Last Templar by Alain Demurger

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Episode 24

The Assassins


A short study of the Nizari Isma'ili sect.


Extra reading

  • The Secret Order of Assassins: The Struggle of the Nizari Isma'ilis against the Islamic World by Marshall G.S. Hodgson

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Episode 25

Eleanor of Aquitaine Part I


Mostly about the year 1137


Extra reading

  • Eleanor of Aquitaine by the Wrath of God, Queen of England by Alison Weir
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine and the Four Kings by Amy Kelly
  • The Letters of Abelard and Heloise available free online HERE - thanks to listener Kevin for providing the link to the free online text.  The letters of Abelard and Heloise provide a fascinating insight into life in Paris in the middle ages and the trials of the monk and scholar Peter Abelard.

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Episode 26


Eleanor of Aquitaine Part II


In which Eleanor goes on Crusade.





Here is a picture of the vase which Eleanor gave to King Louis on their marriage and which was gifted to the church at St Denis.  It is currently part of the collection at the Louvre in Paris.



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Episode 27

Eleanor of Aquitaine Part III


In which Queen Eleanor of France becomes Queen Eleanor of England


The stained glass window pictured here is the one commissioned by Eleanor and Henry.  It is in the cathedral at Poitiers in France.

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Episode 28


Eleanor of Aquitaine Part IV


Featuring an ageing Queen Eleanor, Thomas Becket and some Kings.


Below is a photo of Eleanor's effigy at Fontevrault Abbey.  She is the one in the middle, reading a book.

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Episode 29

The Second Crusade I

Zangi attacks!



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Episode 30

The Second Crusade II

The fall of Edessa.


* Correction: I mispronounced Harry Dimopoulos' email address in this episode.  For those descendents of the Emperor Alexius who are keen to get in touch with Harry his email address is dimopohg@comcast.net

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Episode 31


The Second Crusade III

"Crosses, give us crosses!"



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Episode 32

The Second Crusade IV

Diversions and preparations


Extra reading for the Second Crusade:

  • A History of the Crusades Volume II : The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East 1100-1187 by Steven Runciman
  • The Second Crusade by Jonathan Phillips

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Episode 33

The Second Crusade V

Onward to Constantinople!



Click HERE to see a bigger version of this map!  

The best map I found of the Second Crusade appears on page 302 of Christopher Tyerman's book God's War.  Unfortunately I can't reproduce it here for copyright reasons but this map will give you some idea of the route taken by the Second Crusade if you aren't able to find a copy of God's War.

This is the route taken by the Second Crusade

Episode 33 (b)

This tiny episode contains the three minutes which were left off episode 33 when the episode appeared on the hosting website.  Why were they left off?  I have no idea.  We may never know.  It may remain a mystery.  In case you would like to hear the end of episode 33 - here it is.   

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Episode 34

The Second Crusade VI

Across Anatolia

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Episode 35

The Second Crusade VII

Onward to Antioch



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Episode 36

The Second Crusade VIII

Damascus


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The Second Crusade IX
Aftermath

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Episode 38

Changing Fortunes

After the Second Crusade comes a period of changing fortunes for the Latin Christians and Muslims.

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Episode 39

Frankish Revival

The Franks experience a period of revival. 

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Episode 40

Egypt Part I

This week, the arena of conflict moves to Egypt.


Here is a map of Egypt which might be helpful.  If you would like to see a bigger version, click HERE.

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Episode 41

Egypt Part II

The Latin Christians and the Syrian Muslims clash once again in Egypt.





A picture of the Citadel of Cairo.

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Episode 42

Egypt Part III

The battle for Egypt concludes


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Episode 43

Krak des Chevaliers

An episode about the famous Crusader castle - Krak des Chevaliers.


The magnificent Krak des Chevaliers. 

Here is a trailer for the episode of the Battle Castle television series, devoted to Crac des Chevaliers.  It's worth watching for the CGI reconstruction of the castle.

Above is a view of the chapel inside the castle.

A view of the inner fortress, featuring the talus (sloping wall) and round towers.

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Episode 44

The Fall of Giants

The year 1174 was a major one with the unexpected deaths of two main players.

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Episode 45

The Leper King

The reign of King Baldwin IV commences.


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Episode 46

The Rise of Saladin

We have seen Saladin rise to the dizzy heights of the ruler of Egypt.  See him rise even further in this episode.

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The year 1180
This year sees the marriage of King Baldwin's sister Sibylla and the death of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel.  Both these events will have huge ramifications for the Crusades.

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Episode 48

The Decline of Byzantium

The Byzantine Empire spirals into a decline after the death of Emperor Manuel. 

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Episode 49

Tensions rise...and a King dies...


Castle Kerak features heavily in this episode.  This is Castle Kerak today, in the country of Jordan.  It's not as well preserved as Krak des Chevaliers but is still an impressive castle.  If you want to see a bigger version click HERE.

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EPISODE 50!

The very short reign of King Baldwin V

In this milestone FIFTIETH episode, we examine the very short reign of King Baldwin V and its dramatic aftermath.


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Episode 51

The Horns of Hattin

The epic battle between Saladin and the Latin Christians at Hattin takes place in this episode.  

Below is a panoramic view of the site of the battle.  To see a larger version, click.HERE                                                                            


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Episode 52

The Fall of Jerusalem

The heading is self-explanatory really.  This week we see Jerusalem fall to Saladin.

This is the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.  Shortly after Saladin's entrance into the city on  2nd October 1187, the Christian cross on the top of the Dome was symbolically removed and the City claimed for Islam.

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The Third Crusade I
Setting the scene

This is a statue of Richard the Lionheart, in London.













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The statues of Richard the Lionheart and Saladin meet in Jerusalem.







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The statue of Saladin in Damascus.










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Episode 54

The Third Crusade II

The French and English armies leave on Crusade.  First stop?  Sicily!


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Episode 25

The Third Crusade III


This week we follow the Crusade of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his German army.

 

Here is a painting of what Emperor Frederick Barbarossa might have looked like in his prime.  At the time of the Third Crusade he was 67 years old, so imagine him like this, only with grey hair.

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Episode 56

The Third Crusade IV

The Siege of Acre Part 1

This photo of the Crusader era part of the citadel at Acre was taken last week by Mr Bob Frost.

Thanks to Bob for giving me permission to use his photo!

The Third Crusade V
The Siege of Acre Part 2

These are the remains of the once formidable sea walls surrounding the city of Acre.

Thanks to Bob Frost for permission to use his photo.

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Episode 58

The Third Crusade VI

The siege of Acre Part 3

Here is a rendition of the new Queen of England, Berengaria of Navarre, who accompanied her husband, King Richard I to Acre.

Interestingly, she never set foot in England while she was Queen, and is the only English Queen to never have stepped on English soil during her reign.

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Episode 59

The Third Crusade VII

After quite a lengthy build-up, the two Kings finally arrive in Acre.


The water fairy Melusine makes an appearance in this episode.  Here she is being spied upon by her mortal husband, the Count of Poitou.

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Episode 60

The Third Crusade VIII

Victory at Acre (Sorry about the spoiler)!

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Episode 61

The Third Crusade IX

Aftermath of the siege at Acre

This is a nice rendition of what Richard the Lionheart might have looked like.

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Episode 62

The Third Crusade X

The members of the Third Crusade make their way down the coast to Jaffa

An alleyway in the old city of Jaffa

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Episode 63

The Third Crusade XI - Stalemate

King Richard is in Jaffa, but just can't make up his mind where to go next - Jerusalem or Ascalon?  And...a very bizarre peace treaty is negotiated between the warring parties. 

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Episode 64

The Third Crusade XII

Led by King Richard I, the members of the Third Crusade get within 12 miles of their ultimate goal, Jerusalem.

Here is King Guy of Jerusalem.  Or at least, its how a French painter in the 1800s (Francois-Edouard Picot in 1843 to be exact) thought he may have looked.

If you would like to visit the original, it's hanging in the Salle des Croisades at Versailles in France.

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Episode 65

The Fate of Kings


Here is Conrad of Montferrat*.  He nearly gets to be crowned King of Jerusalem in this episode but then something bad happen.  Something really bad.

*Monsieur Picot is the artist of this painting.

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Episode 66

The Third Crusade XIV

The Third Crusade concludes with the signing of the Treaty of Jaffa

Saladin and Richard the Lionheart never met in person, despite being the central players in the Third Crusade.


But - you will be pleased to know that their statues did meet...and here they are - greeting each other in the Holy City of Jerusalem. 

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Episode 67

Christianity in the Crusader States

In this episode we take a closer look at the local Christian religions in the Middle East at the time of the Crusades.



These two books are highly recommended if you would like to discover more about this subject.


"From the Holy Mountain" by William Dalrymple is a travel book.  The author follows in the footsteps of John Moschos who travelled through the Byzantine world in 587AD.


"The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East" by Robert Fisk details the conflicts in the Middle East since WWI.  There is a very comprehensive chapter on the massacre of the Armenians in 1915 which I briefly discuss in the episode.

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Episode 68

Life in the Crusader States

In this episode, we look at what life was like for a Latin-Christian in the Crusader States.



Crusaders and Muslims in the Holy Land.

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The German Crusade

Emperor Henry VI instigates a German Crusade to the Holy Land.



The tomb of Emperor Henry VI in the Cathedral of Palermo, Sicily.

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Episode 70

The Fourth Crusade I


Here are my core texts for the episodes on the Fourth Crusade.

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Episode 71

The Fourth Crusade II


Representatives from the Fourth Crusade travel to Venice


The Doge's Palace in Venice - the scene of some activity this week.

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Episode 72

The Fourth Crusade III

The siege of Zara


Here is the church of St Donatus in Zara (now called Zadar in Croatia).  Built in the 9th century, this church was spared by the Crusaders when they pillaged the town.

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Episode 73

The Fourth Crusade IV

A change of plans.

Here he is.  The man himself.  The instigator of the Fourth Crusade, Pope Innocent III.

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Episode 74

The Fourth Crusade V

To Constantinople

This is the chain that stretched across the Golden Horn - currently on display at the Istanbul Military Museum.  While this particular chain dates from 1453, it is likely that the chain encountered by the members of the Fourth Crusade in 1203 was similar.

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The Fourth Crusade VI
The First Siege of Constantinople

Here is a map of Constantinople at the time of the Fourth Crusade.  

Click HERE to go to the Byzantium 1200 website, where you can explore a digital recreation of Constantinople in the year 1200.  Make sure you take a look at the Blachernae Palace  and the mighty Theodocian walls.

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Episode 76

The Fourth Crusade VII

Victory?


Here's everyone's favourite party-boy, and friend to the Crusaders and Venetians alike - Emperor Alexius IV


It's not a terribly flattering portrait of him.

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Episode 77

The Fourth Crusade VIII

The second siege of Constantinople

Here is a painting depicting the second siege of Constantinople.


Entitled "The taking of Constantinople 1204" it's by Italian artist Palma il Giovane (1544-1620)

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Episode 78

The Fourth Crusade IX

The sack of Constantinople


These magnificant horses were removed during the sack of Constantinople and taken to Venice, where they adorned St Mark's Basilica.  Now they are housed inside the Basilica to protect them from pollution.

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The Fourth Crusade X

This week, we take a look at the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade

Below is a monument to the Venetian Doge Dandolo in the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul.  The Doge was buried in the Hagia Sophia in 1205, but his tomb was destroyed following the Ottman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.  This monument doesn't indicate exactly where the Doge's final resting place is, as that has been lost to history.

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Episode 80

Meanwhile, back in the Holy Land...

We take a look at what has been happening in the Holy Land while we've been away on the Fourth Crusade.


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Episode 81

The Children's Crusade

We take a look at the Children's Crusade/s of 1212.


Gustave Dore's portrayal of the Children's Crusade.

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The Fifth Crusade I
Recruitment.

Here is a marble portrait of Pope Innocent III currently displayed in the House of Representatives chamber in the USA.

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Episode 83

The Fifth Crusade II

The members of the Fifth Crusade set sail from Europe and eventually end up at the city of Damietta in Egypt

This map shows the location of Damietta - near the coast, at the entrance of one of the main branches of the River Nile. 

This is artist CC van Wieringen's interpretation of the capture of the Tower of Chains during the Fifth Crusade.  

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Episode 84

The Fifth Crusade III

In the swamp

Here is Cardinal Pelagius - cardinal legate, and self-proclaimed leader of the Fifth Crusade.

And this is King John of Acre, the original leader of the Fifth Crusade.

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Episode 85

The Fifth Crusade IV

Conclusion

This is the Saladin Citadel in the ultimate destination of the Fifth Crusade - Cairo.  Built in the 12th century, the citadel would have been a landmark in Cairo at the time of the Fifth Crusade.

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Episode 86

Emperor Frederick II


This week we take a closer look at Emperor Frederick II


Here's a fine looking picture of Emperor Frederick II and the Egyptian ruler, Al-Kamil.

Frederick is on the left.

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Episode 87


Emperor Frederick's Crusade I


We accompany Emperor Frederick II on his crusade.



Here is the Kingdom of Acre (the section coloured yellow) as it was following Emperor Frederick's Crusade.

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Episode 88

Emperor Frederick's Crusade II


Emperor Frederick's Crusade concludes.

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Episode 89

The Barons' Crusade


Richard Earl of Cornwall led the English contingent of the Barons'  Crusade. Strangely, he eventually went on to become the King of Germany.  Here is a coin minted in his honour.

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Episode 90

Disaster Strikes

Bad times come to the Kingdom of Acre in the form of the invading Khwarismian army.

Here is a nice depiction of the Khwarismian cavalry, via the Total War Centre (www.twcentre.net)

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Episode 91

King Louis' Crusade I

Preparations and recruitment for the Crusade of King Louis IX.

Pope Innocent and King Louis IX.  King Louis is the one with the fancy robes.

The gorgeous Sainte Chapelle in Paris - commissioned by King Louis before he embarked on his crusade. 

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Episode 92

King Louis' Crusade II

The Crusade sails to Damietta.

Here is a nice statue of King Louis IX which you can gaze upon should you happen to be in Paris.

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Episode 93

King Louis' Crusade III

To Mansourah

King Louis sails in a ship, protected by some Knights Templar.

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Episode 94

King Louis' Crusade IV

The battle of Mansourah

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Episode 95

King Louis' Crusade V

Defeat

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Episode 96

King Louis' Crusade VI

Aftermath

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Episode 97

The Warring Merchants

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Episode 98

The Mongol Invasion

The Mongols expand out of Persia into Syria.

Khan Hulegu is pictured here at the head of his all-conquering Mongol army. 

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Episode 99

Egyptian Resistance

This episode ends with the battle of Ain Jalut.  Here is a map to help you know where it takes place.

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Episode 100!

Baibars

This week sees the rise to power of the Mamluk Sultan Baibars

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Episode 101

Baibars attacks!


This is an aerial view of Caesarea today.  As you can see, there is not much remaining of its medieval structures.  Who is to blame for this?  Sultan Baibars, that's who.

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Episode 102

The Fall of Antioch

This week we wave goodbye to the first of the three remaining Crusader States - the Principality of Antioch.

Here's my tribute to the fallen Principality.

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Episode 103

The Last Crusades

The French, English and Spanish monarchs embark on separate crusades to the Holy Land.

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Episode 104

Troubled Times

This week sees the two remaining Crusader States stagger from disaster, to disaster.

One of the disastrous events to occur in this episode is the fall of Krak des Chevalier.  The castle, which was thought to be impregnable, fell to Baibars in April 1271.  Baibars turned the castle from a Christian stronghold, into a Muslim one.

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Episode 105

Party Like There's No Tomorrow

This week sees some strange events taking place in the Middle East, including the biggest party seen in the Crusader States for a century.

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The Fall of Tripoli
Oh dear.  Another Crusader State bites the dust...



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Episode 107

The Fall of Acre

In the final episode of this podcast series, we see the last of the Crusader States fall, heralding the end of the Latin Christian presence in the Holy Land.

Here is a recent photo of modern day Acre, with the western part of the old city in the background.


Photo courtesy of listener John D. Hays

Here's my tribute to the Kingdom of Jerusalem (later the Kingdom of Acre) featuring a painting by Emile Signol depicting the taking of Jerusalem by the Crusaders; a 13th century coin from Acre and my trusty volume of Steven Runciman's second volume on the History of the Crusades adorned with my Jerusalem Cross necklace. 

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...and that's a wrap, people!  


Thank you for listening - we hope you enjoyed this podcast series.


regards


Sharyn (Podcaster)

Lana (Technical Support)


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SPECIAL EPISODE - KING PETER OF CYPRUS & THE LAST CRUSADE


Hello again!  I'm keen to get back to podcasting - but first I need to cover my expenses to date.  So - I've recorded an hour long episode which I'm selling for $5 US.  If you've been tossing and turning at night, unable to sleep because you are wondering what happened to King Henry II and the Mamluk Sultan Khalil after the fall of Acre, then this episode is for you.  Importantly, the episode also covers the last ever crusade in which the goal was the recovery of Jerusalem - the crusade by King Peter of Cyprus in 1365.  And I've thrown in the entire history of the island of Cyprus for good measure (concentrating of course on the Latin Kingdom of Cyprus).

Should I make enough from the sale of this episode, I will start working on a series of episodes on the crusade against the Cathars in southern France in the 13th century.

If you would like to help get me back to podcasting, you can purchase the episode, then listen to it or download it from here:

historyofthecrusades.bandcamp.com


THANK YOU!  


Sharyn Eastaugh



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Episode 109

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

A short introduction


We start our new series on the Crusade against the Cathars (AKA the Albigensian Crusade) with a short introduction.


The four texts shown in the photo are the core books I'll be using for this crusade.  The other books shown are the supplementary texts.


 

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Episode 110

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Languedoc in 1208


We take a look at Southern France just prior to the crusade against the Cathars

This map shows the very confusing mix of allegiances in the differing regions of Languedoc in 1208.  If you want to see a bigger version, click HERE

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Episode 111

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The origins of the Cathars


This week, we look at the beliefs of the Cathars, and the origins of the heresy.


Here is a page from the Cathar text of the Gospel of St John, an example of the type of book that a new Perfect would be presented with after the ritual of Consolamentum.


If you wish to see the original, you can find it at the Palais des Arts in Lyon, France.

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Episode 112

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The heresy takes root


This week we examine the rule of Count Raymond V of Toulouse and his not exactly successful attempts to quash the rise of the Cathar faith.


This is the interior of the Church of St Sernin in Toulouse, which the unfortunate heretic Peter Maurand was force to parade around naked and barefoot as part of his penance.

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Episode 113

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Count Raymond VI of Toulouse


In this episode, we meet Count Raymond VI of Toulouse and his unhappy wives.

This is the official seal of Count Raymond VI of Toulouse.

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THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS
The Papal Legates

This week, we welcome Pope Innocent III to the podcast.  Pope Innocent immediately tries to address the heresy problem by engaging a number of papal legates.

In the same way that the future St Francis made an appearance in the Fifth Crusade, this week features a cameo appearance by the future St Dominic, who tries to lend a hand to rid Languedoc of Cathars.

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Episode 115

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The Murder


This week, we finally return to the point we reached back in episode 110 - the murder of the papal legate Peter of Castelnau



Here is a photo of a plaque at St Gilles, dedicated to Peter of Castelnau

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Episode 116

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

"Forward then soldiers of Christ!"

The Church at St Gilles, the scene of a humiliating event undertaken by Count Raymond VI of Toulouse, on 18th June 1209.

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Episode 117

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The Gathering Force


The Crusade gets underway, with the first military engagement occurring away from the main army, to the west.

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Episode 118

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The sack of Beziers


This is a photo of the bridge over the River Orb, with the fortified town of Beziers on the escarpment above the bridge.

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Episode 119

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

To Carcassonne


The victorious crusaders make their way to the next target on their hit list, the city of Carcassonne.

Here is a short video, showing a recreation of medieval Carcassonne.  It doesn't show the three suburbs outside the walls, but you will get an idea of the size of the city and its fortifications.  Note the citadel, home to the Viscount of Carcassonne, which appears at the end of the video.

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THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS
The Siege of Carcassonne

This week, we take a look at the siege of Carcassonne in 1209.

Here is a portrait of King Peter II of Aragon (painted by Manuel Aguirre Monsalbe in the 19th century).  What does the King of Aragon have to do with the siege of Carcassonne?  You'll have to listen to the episode, to find out.

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Episode 121

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The fall of Carcassonne


This week, sees the fall of Carcassonne to the crusaders.  To view a short video featuring the main features of the current city Carcassonne, including its citadel, click on the link below. 

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Episode 122

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Viscount Simon de Montfort


This week we see Simon de Montfort take up his new role as Viscount of Beziers and Carcassonne.

If you would like to hear some music from the time and place of the Crusade against the Cathars, click  HERE to go to the album The Forgotten Kingdom by Jordi Savall on Spotify, containing songs from the Cathar era and some spoken items, including the Cathar prayer of Consolamentum.  Enjoy!

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Episode 123

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Reversals of fortune 


We hear some of the main characters in the crusade, undergo changes of fortune.


These are the castles of Cabaret.  At the time of the crusade against the Cathars, three castles comprised the stronghold of Cabaret.  A fourth castle was built after the crusade.  Unfortunately, today they are all ruins.  Very picturesque ruins.

 
 

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Episode 124

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Atrocities


As the year 1209 clicks over into 1210, both sides engage in sickening conduct in relation to the prisoners they have taken.

 
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THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The siege of Minerve

In this episode, Simon de Montfort turns his attention to one of the rebel strongholds - the fortified town of Minerve.

Simon's key weapon in his attack on Minerve was a trebuchet.  Here are some trebuchets in action.  They are recreations of medieval trebuchets which were photographed in the former Viscounty of Carcassonne in Southern France.

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Episode 126

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

To Termes


Simon de Montfort travels to Termes, to lay siege to its castle.

The castle at Termes was demolished in the 17th century.  However, the ruins give you an idea of the challenges Simon faced in attempting to take the fortress.

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Episode 127

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS 

The siege of Termes


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THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS 
The flight of St Martin's bird

As the pendulum of military success swings in the direction of Simon de Montfort, it swings away from Count Raymond VI of Toulouse.

Here is the Narbonne Cathedral.  Building on the current structure began in 1272 but it was never actually completed.  The steeple from the church originally on the site was preserved and incorporated into the current structure.

 

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Episode 129

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS 

The surrender of Cabaret and the siege of Lavaur


Simon de Montfort continues on his conquering way.

Giralda, the Lady of Lavaur, is executed in a gruesome manner by the crusaders when she fails to defend her city.  This monument stands in her honour, at Lavaur today.


For this photo, information and pictures about the siege of Lavaur, visit:

http://www.catharcastles.info/lavaur.php

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Episode 130

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

To Toulouse


Simon de Monfort sets his sights on Count Raymond's capital city - the city of Toulouse

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THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The siege of Toulouse


It's the year 1211 - Simon de Montfort and his crusaders attempt to take the city of Toulouse.

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Episode 132

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The siege of Castelnaudry


Simon de Montfort is besieged (sort of) in the town of Castelnaudry by Count Raymond and his large army, in the year 1211.

Here is the very impressive castle of Foix - home, of course, to the Count of Foix.  The castle is located in the far south of Southern France, near the border with the Kingdom of Aragon.




Here is a window seat located inside the castle of Foix.  Note the awesome width of the castle walls.


This photo and the one above via http://www.catharcastles.info/

Used with permission

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Episode 133

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The battle of Saint-Martin-la-Lande


Simon de Monfort's crusaders and the Southern French rebels clash in a rare pitched battle.

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Episode 134

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

To the end of the year 1211


Simon de Montfort learns that you can win battles, yet move no closer to winning the war.

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Episode 135

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The winter campaign of 1212

Looking more fortress than place of worship, this is the very impressive Cathedral of Sainte Cecile in the town of Albi.

A closer look at the formidable Cathedral in Albi.


Both photos via http://www.catharcastles.info/


used with permission

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Episode 136

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The siege of Hautpol and the siege of St-Antonin


Simon de Montfort decides on a new strategy.  Adopting a 'no more Mr Nice Guy' approach, he takes his crusade to the northern reaches of the County of Toulouse and the Viscounty of Albi.


Here is a photo of an impressively-made window in the ruins of the castle at Hautpol.

The town of Hautpol today - perched high in the Black Mountains.

 

The symbol of the Count of Toulouse - proudly displayed in the medieval ruins of Hautpol.



Photos

via http://www.catharcastles.info/

Used with permission

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THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS
The invasion of the Agenais

Simon de Montfort ventures north into an area almost free of heretics - the wealthy Agenais region.

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Episode 138

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The siege of Moissac


Simon de Montfort besieges the town of Moissac in 1212.

This is part of the Abbey of St Peter inside Moissac

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Episode 139

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

King Peter II of Aragon Part 1


We take a closer look at King Peter II of Aragon, his kingdom, and medieval Spain in general.

This is a portrait of King Peter II, painted by Manuel Aguirre Monsalbe in the 1800s.  He may have looked nothing like this, but it's a nice painting.

This is the palace of Aljaferia in Zaragoza - King Peter's official residence.

Inside the palace.

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Episode 140

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

King Peter II of Aragon Part 2


King Peter finds himself playing a pivotal role in the famous battle of Las Navas de Tolosa.

This modern monument commemorates the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa.  Depicted are the Spanish kings and the senior clerics, with a shepherd pointing to the secret passage through the mountains.

Here is the Caliph's battle standard, taken during the battle.  It is now on display at the Monastery de las Huelgas in Spain. 

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Episode 141

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The Kingdom Strikes Back


King Peter II of Aragon strikes a major blow against Simon de Montfort and the crusade against the Cathars.

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Episode 142

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The decision of Pope Innocent III


Pope Innocent III supported King Peter's position in January 1213.  The Papal Legates have now petitioned him to reverse his decision.  What will Pope Innocent do?

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Episode 143

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

We need to talk about King John


Following Pope Innocent's shock decision in May 1213, King Peter looks to other European monarchs for possible assistance.  King John of England is eager to lend a hand.

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Episode 144

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Towards Muret


Events build in the first half of the year 1213.


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Episode 145

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The Battle of Muret Part I


We start to look at the epic battle between the crusaders and the rebel forces at Muret in September 1213.


Below is a stamp issued to commemorate the 800th anniversary of the Battle of Muret.  Image via catharcastles.com - used with permission.

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Episode 146

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The Battle of Muret Part II


Team Montfort and Team Aragon finally meet on the battlefield.  


Below is a map of the battlefield taken from a 1924 text entitled The Art of War in the Middle Ages.  Photo via catharcastles.info, used with permission.



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Episode 147

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Muret - Analysis


Unsurprisingly, this episode contains an analysis of the Battle of Muret.

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Episode 148

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Muret - aftermath


Unsurprisingly, this episode deals with the aftermath of the Battle of Muret.

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Episode 149

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

To the end of 1213


Is the crusade against the Cathars still a thing, following the battle of Muret?  You bet it is!  We take the narrative to the end of the year 1213.

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Episode 150

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Rebel resistance rises


As 1213 clicks over into 1214, Simon de Montfort's problems seem to be mounting.  Meanwhile, resistance rises across southern France and the rebels enjoy a victory in the north.

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Episode 151 

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Narbonne 1214


Quite a lot happens in this episode - Simon de Montfort dashes from one end of Languedoc to the other trying to put down rebellions, Simon nearly gets captured outside Narbonne and the crusade technically (but only technically) comes to an end.

Here is the Archbishop's Palace in Narbonne, where the Counts of Foix and Comminge were reconciled to the Church in 1214.

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Episode 152

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The siege of Casseneuil


It's 1214, and Simon de Montfort besieges a town in the Agen which is very tricky to pronounce.


This is a photo (via Wikipedia) of the current state of the castle walls at Casseneuil.

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Episode 153

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Exit King John


As we bring the narrative to the end of 1214, King John of England's French campaign ends in spectacular failure, leaving Simon de Montfort free to conquer northern Languedoc.


King Phillip of France made some impressive conquests during his reign - most of them against King John of England.  Here is a map of King Phillip's territory at the beginning and end of his reign.  The blue sections are ruled directly by the French crown, the green indirectly.  The red areas are territory under the control of King John.

Map via wikipedia

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Episode 154

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The Council of Montpellier 1215


The Council of Montpellier convened by papal legate Peter Benevento backfires spectacularly, and Simon de Montfort dodges an assassination attempt.

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Episode 155

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Prince Louis's Crusade


In a surprise move, the Kingdom of France joins the Crusade against the Cathars.  


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Episode 156

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The Eccumenical Council


It's finally here!  The long awaited Eccumenical Council (later known as the Fourth Lateran Council) convenes in Rome, in November 1215.  One of the many items up for discussion at the Council is the Crusade against the Cathars.

Here is what the Lateran Palace in Rome (where the Eccumenical Council was held) looked like in medieval times.  

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 Episode 157

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Early 1216


The new Count of Toulouse, Simon de Montfort, embarks on a victorious tour of northern France, while the Raymonds come up with a plan to win back their County.

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THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS
The siege of Beaucaire

The 19 year old Raymond embarks on his first military campaign against the experienced Simon de Montfort - with a surprising result.

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Episode 159

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Toulouse 1216


Young Raymond's unexpected victory at Beaucaire ignites rebel resistance, and Simon de Montfort is forced to race back to Toulouse to quell the rebellion.

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Episode 160

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The Rebel Invasion


Simon de Montfort travels to the Rhone Valley in an attempt to quell young Raymond's rebellion.  Meanwhile, Raymond VI leads a small rebel army down the Pyrenees into the city of Toulouse.

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Episode 161

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The siege of Toulouse 1217


In this episode, we track the second siege of Toulouse to the end of the year 1217.

Here is a map of Toulouse.  Although it was drawn 400 years after the siege, it shows the location of the Narbonnaise Castle (built over the Narbonnaise gate in the city walls - indicated by the red dot) and the suburb of St Cyprien over the river Garonne.  Map via catharcastles.info - used with permission.

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THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS
The siege of Toulouse 1218

The siege of Toulouse continues into the year 1218.

Here is a scene from a painting on display in the city hall of Toulouse, depicting the citizens of Toulouse constructing defences during the siege.


Painted by Jean-Paul Laurens 1895, photo via catharcastles.info used with permission

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Episode 163

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Lo lop es mort!


It's June 1218 and an event occurs during the siege of Toulouse which will change the course of the crusade.

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THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS
Post mortem

The big question everyone wants to know is...will the Crusade against the Cathars continue after Simon de Monfort's death?

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Episode 165

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

Deliverance


As the Crusade against the Cathars withers and wanes, young Raymond delivers much of Languedoc from northern French rule.

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Episode 166

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The crusade of King Louis VIII


Just when you thought it was all over, we're off on crusade again!  The French crown gathers an army and marches south.

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Episode 167

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The end of the Crusade


This is it!  After a couple of decades of warfare, the Crusade against the Cathars comes to an end.  There are, however, still Cathars living in Languedoc...

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Episode 168

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The beginning of the Inquisition


The Catholic Church introduces a novel means of ridding Southern France of heretics - the inquisition.


The first Inquisitors were friars from the Dominican order.  The future St Dominic established his order in Toulouse - one of the houses he used is pictured in this photo.

Episode 169

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS


The Inquisition : the early years


We track the rocky ride of the Inquisition through its early years in Languedoc.

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Episode 170

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The Inquisition : resistance rises


I guess nobody will be surprised to hear that the Inquisition, while expanding across southern France, is attracting quite a bit of resistance.

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Episode 171

THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CATHARS

The last stand


It's the year 1242, and Count Raymond VII of Toulouse makes one last attempt to eject the northern French out of Languedoc.